As we celebrate the winter holiday season with its many joyful occasions, it's sobering to think how many people are in need of nutritious food. Millions of people are at risk of going hungry, says Feeding America. And according to groundbreaking studies by the University of California, we now know that a large number of college students are among the hungry.
A significant problem, “starving students” are not a lighthearted joke: students are going hungry and sometimes homeless, too. Food and housing insecurity among college students threatens their health, as well as their academic achievements.
The Student Food Access and Security Study examined the results of two surveys administered online in spring 2015 to a random sample of more than 66,000 students across all 10 UC campuses. Fourteen percent of the students -- 8,932 undergraduate and graduate students in all -- responded.
Nineteen percent of the students responding to the survey had “very low” food security, which the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) defines as experiencing reduced food intake at times due to limited resources. An additional 23 percent of survey respondents had “low” food security, which the USDA defines as reduced quality, variety or desirability of diet, with little or no indication of reduced food intake.
Added together, an alarming 42 percent of the students surveyed were food insecure.
The toolkit compiles best practices that have evolved at UC campuses as the university advanced efforts to nourish and support students.
Each section of the toolkit provides examples across multiple campuses to highlight the range of activities underway, as well as lessons learned.
Meeting basic needs: Food security and housing security
Expenses other than tuition can make up more than 60 percent of the cost of attending college today. The cost of living for college students has risen by more than 80 percent over the past four decades.
To better understand the prevalence of food insecurity among University of California students, the university has continued to examine the issue of student food insecurity and is beginning to assess students' housing insecurity. Food security and housing security are basic needs that students must meet to maintain their health and well-being so that they can focus on achieving academically.
Moving forward: implementing a basic needs master plan
UC has done much over the past three years to help students meet basic needs. The findings from the new report will help UC go even further. The new findings will inform strategies for addressing basic needs security, including the creation of a UC basic needs master plan.
Perhaps we can retire the “joke” of the starving student after all.
“What if, today, we were grateful for everything?” asks Charlie Brown.
You don't need to be a beloved cartoon character to understand the meaning of Thanksgiving. Giving thanks seems like an excellent goal for this year's celebration … and every day, really. Here are some important steps for a healthy, delicious and memorable holiday.
First, be safe Millions of Americans will be celebrating this Thanksgiving. Foodborne illness is a real concern. So, let's make sure everybody enjoys the meal and doesn't get ill.
From safely thawing a turkey to making sure it's properly cooked, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) offers a range of tips to keep your holiday safe. (One hint: take care with the stuffing). The USDA's famous Meat & Poultry Hotline will remain open on Thanksgiving Day until 11 a.m. PST; their team of experts is on hand to answer any questions you may have.
No, Thanksgiving feast would be complete without pie. Whether you're a sweet potato or pumpkin pie fan, good crust is essential. Making a good pie crust isn't rocket science...but it does involve molecular science. In this video, University of California researcher Amy Rowat uses science to show you how to make the best pie crust ever.
Second, savor the meal
Did you know that there's a science to eating? Before you pile lots of food on your plate, take time to consider these seven steps from University of California scientists and researchers; they will assure that you savor every bite of your meal.
Third, don't waste
Enjoy your meal, but make it a point to reduce food waste this holiday season.
“Food waste presents a major challenge in the United States. Estimates suggest that up to 40% of the food produced nationally never gets consumed, causing substantial economic and environmental harms. Wasted food utilizes vast quantities of precious land, water and human resources, yet rather than nourishing people, it feeds landfills, producing methane gasses that poison the environment. Much of the food waste (43%) occurs at the household level.”
We sought out experts from UC ANR's Master Food Preserver Program for advice on how to use leftovers. Some takeaways: refer to this food storage chart to determine how long you can safety store leftover food. For more tips, click here. Leftover turkey can be used to make a delicious homemade stock that can serve as the base for additional meals. We provide a recipe and information about how to safely preserve stock here.
However you celebrate Thanksgiving, the staff of UC ANR wishes you a safe, happy and healthy holiday.
Editor's Note: UC Agriculture and Natural Resources (UC ANR) researchers and educators draw on local expertise to conduct agricultural, environmental, economic, youth development and nutrition research that helps California thrive. We operate the 4-H, Master Gardener and Master Food Preserver Programs. We live where you live. Learn more here. Are you a #veteran or #beginning farmer interested in learning more about poultry production? UC ANR is co-hosting a series of poultry workshops beginning in December and throughout 2017. Get the details here.
Learn more about native and indigenous foods from Valerie Segrest of the Muckleshoot Tribe in the Pacific Northwest; the post appears on the UC Food Observer blog.
“Food waste presents a major challenge in the United States. Estimates suggest that up to 40% of the food produced nationally never gets consumed, causing substantial economic and environmental harms. Wasted food utilizes vast quantities of precious land, water and human resources, yet rather than nourishing people, it feeds landfills, producing methane gasses that poison the environment. Much of the food waste (43%) occurs at the household level."
This poster played an important role in discouraging food waste and encouraging food conservation on the American home front during World War I. Noted artist Edward Penfield created the poster. It's held in the Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.
What history can teach us
Here's my take on food waste. It goes back in part to lessons I've learned from studying World War I (WWI), when the American government set food conservation goals (along with goals for local food production via Liberty – later Victory – Gardens). I'm a big proponent of both reducing food waste and producing more food in communities via school, home and community gardens. Big point: the World War I poster included in this post has advice we'd be well served to heed today.
It's an iconic poster from World War 1. Food…don't waste it. The image is regularly shared on Twitter and Facebook.
Poster from the collection of the Museum of Ventura County. (Credit: Aysen Tan)
Period piece or photoshopped image?
The original was produced in 1919 by the United States Food Administration, under the direction of the newly appointed food “czar” – Herbert Hoover.
The poster was reissued during World War II. It's been revised in recent years by individuals and organizations interested in encouraging an ethos incorporating local foods and sustainability.
While I'm the UC Food Observer, I also dabble in the history of wartime poster art. I'm often asked if this is a contemporary mock-up made to look and feel vintage.
It's not a mock-up. It's the real deal, produced 95 years ago, with messages we should embrace today.
The original poster: Yes: ‘buy local foods' is rule 4
The original poster has six rules that we'd be well served to follow today. The fourth rule – buy local foods – is somewhat of a surprise to people today, because the notion of buying local seems somewhat modern. But in WWI, the U.S. government encouraged the local production and consumption of food, in part, to free trains to more effectively ship troops and war matériel.
Tackling food waste through preservation: today's Master Food Preserver Program
Many land grant institutions, including the University of California, host master food preserver programs. These programs teach best practices on food safety and preservation to volunteers. The extensive training program prepares the volunteers to work in their community educating others on the safe practices of food preservation, including pickling, drying, freezing, canning and fruit preserves.
Thinking about gardening? Do we have resources for you!
The University of California sponsors the state's Master Gardener Program, which fields more than 5,000 volunteers in communities across the state. The Master Gardener Program is a national program, housed at the land grant institution in each state, but it's also connected to the USDA. Free gardening resources are available here. Advice to grow by…just ask.
Food waste is both an ethical and environmental issue. It should concern us that we wastenearly 40% of the food we produce and purchase in this food-abundant nation.
For an interesting comparative statistic, consider this: our nation produced about 40% of the fruits and vegetables we consumed on the American home front in World War II in school, home, community and workplace gardens. That was the result of the iconic Victory Garden program (which actually got its start in WW1).
Three messages then: participate in the national effort, commit to wasting less food, and if you can, produce some food of your own.
Notes: There are many additional resources about #foodwaste.
Connect: ReFED, a collaboration of nonprofit, government, business and foundation leaders, released a report in 2016 that identifies a number of potential solutions to the food waste challenge.
Today marks the start of the 9th Biennial Childhood Obesity Conference. Since it's founding 18 years ago by UC ANR Specialist Pat Crawford, it has grown from a small gathering of California researchers, educators, and health care professionals to the nation's largest gathering on the topic of pediatric obesity/overweight.
“Not changing is risky. The United States – along with Mexico – has the highest obesity rates in the industrialized world. With these extraordinarily high obesity rates, we are on a path toward ever-rising chronic disease rates including not just diabetes, but also heart disease and some cancers, increasing health care costs and reducing productivity.
Even more alarming, is a little known fact that 23 percent of the adolescents in this country currently have pre-diabetes or diabetes as measured by actual blood tests in our largest national study of health (NHANES). Something is seriously wrong in a society such as ours where so many children are growing up with such a high risk of preventable disease.”
You can read the complete interview at the UC Food Observer. You'll also find a recent story about the 45 youth advocates from organizations around California joining this year's conference to bring the voices of youth to this vital conversation.
Suzanna Martinez will study how sleep duration affects the diet and physical activity of Mexican-American children.
September is Childhood Obesity Awareness Month and Hispanic Heritage Month kicked off on Sept. 15. A new Nutrition Policy Institute study on obesity among Mexican-American children ties in with both of these themes.
One in five Mexican-American children is obese, according to national statistics. While scientists agree that diet and exercise play a role in obesity, studies also suggest that children who don't get enough sleep may also be at increased risk for obesity. Does this mean that children who don't get enough sleep are more likely to become obese due to poor eating habits and being less physically active?
The National Institutes of Health has awarded $895,620 to Suzanna Martinez, Ph.D., assistant researcher for UC Nutrition Policy Institute (NPI) in the UC Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, to try to answer that question. This will be the first pediatric study to examine health behaviors that link sleep to obesity in Mexican-American children.
Studies have shown that adults who are short on sleep may experience a change in metabolism and hormones, causing the person to eat more and to be more sedentary the following day.
To explore how sleep affects child obesity, Martinez will examine social and cultural factors that may impact Mexican-American children's sleep and, in turn, how sleep affects their diet and physical activity.
Inadequate sleep may affect a child's appetite.
Martinez hopes to provide guidance for which behaviors to target to prevent obesity.
“Some researchers just focus on diet, some researchers just focus on physical activity, while other researchers say it's all about the environment so we have to improve the environment in terms of food environment and opportunities to be active,” Martinez said. “There's very little research that tries to target all three aspects of health behavior – sleep, diet and physical activity – because there are so many factors to consider. We have to know which will make the biggest impact on obesity prevention. Is it sleep, diet or physical activity or a combination of all three?” Currently, programs are heavily focused on diet and/or physical activity.
Social and cultural factors may affect sleep
Martinez is essentially combining three different studies into one to evaluate the context of sleep and how it impacts obesity. The five-year study will occur in two phases.
She'll begin by looking at the culture, environment and socioeconomic status of the Mexican American families to see which factors may relate to sleep duration.
For example, Martinez said, “If less acculturated Mexican-American parents have stricter or earlier bedtimes for their children, is that protective for getting optimal sleep, less protective or does it even matter?”
Living in crowded housing or in neighborhoods with high crime, homelessness and drugs can impact sleep for urban Latino families, Martinez learned from interviews with Latino parents for a study she published in 2015.
Sleep and physical activity and diet
The second phase of the study will involve evaluating the sleep duration of 40 Mexican American kids, ages 8 to 10, in the San Francisco Bay Area over two summers.
To record their sleep and physical activity, the participating kids will wear accelerometers during the day and while they sleep. The small, pedometer-like devices are worn on a belt around the hip.
For the first week of the three-week study, the children will be asked to get their normal sleep. During the second week, half of the children will be asked to sleep for less than 8 hours and the other half will be asked to sleep at least 10 hours. The third week, the two groups will switch over to the other sleep schedule.
Their diets will be measured using 24-hour dietary recalls. On Friday and Saturday, children will be asked what he or she ate the day before (Thursday and Friday). Starting with breakfast, the children will report what they ate and drank for meals and any snacks.
Martinez will evaluate whether healthy sleep or restricted sleep the previous night impacts the children's diet and physical activity the next day.
“With the crossover study, we will be able to see how kids compare when they get their usual sleep, healthy sleep or not enough sleep and how that impacts how much they eat and how much they move the next day,” she said.
Current child-obesity prevention programs are heavily focused on diet and physical activity.
No U.S. sleep guidelines
To maintain a healthy weight, U.S. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion recommends that children get at least 30 minutes of physical activity daily and the Dietary Guidelines for America recommend that children eat a nutrient-dense and calorically balanced diet. The government office currently has no national sleep guidelines for Americans.
“There needs to be more research on sleep duration before we can say, ‘Sleeping this amount of time will help prevent obesity,'” Martinez said.
If her hunch is correct, promoting optimal sleep (at least 10 hours for school-age children) may be an effective way to reduce childhood obesity, and understanding the role of culture in obesity among Mexican-American children who have some of the highest rates obesity will be a key to designing effective solutions.
Research has shown that obesity contributes to numerous lifelong health problems, including heart disease, stroke, diabetes and high blood pressure. One in four overweight children become obese as an adult, and diseases like diabetes are presenting earlier than adulthood. National data show that 14 percent of white children are classified as obese, while 21 percent of Latino children are obese. With Latino children at increased risk, Martinez is committed to finding the causes of this disparity and to develop effective ways to reduce obesity among Mexican-American children.
This child obesity study is funded by a K01 Career Development Award from the National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. Martinez has also been accepted into the K Scholars Program at UC San Francisco, which will provide her with peer support and mentorship to conduct the study.